In this text we’ll present how to resolve issues that happen when a pc working Linux Ubuntu/Mint/Kali doesn’t boot or drops to a busybox immediate through the initramfs initialization. The consumer can entry and use solely the initramfs command immediate.
Initramfs is the preliminary tmpfs-based file system in the RAM that doesn’t use a separate block gadget. Like the initrd, it incorporates instruments and scripts to mount file methods prior to calling init positioned in the foundation file system.
Repairing a damaged Ext4 Superblock in LInux
If Ubuntu crashes right into a busybox through the initramfs initialization, there could also be a broken superblock on the disk.
everal superblock copies are stored in Linux. To recuperate a system in case this drawback happens, you want to boot from the rescue picture/disk/Live CD and run the terminal immediate. After booting, enter the next command in the terminal:
# sudo fdisk -l|grep Linux|grep -Ev 'swap'
The command returns the details about your quantity:
/dev/vda2 4096 83884031 83879936 40G Linux filesystem
Remember the quantity identify and specify it in the next command:
# sudo dumpe2fs /dev/vda2 | grep superblock
The command will present the checklist of backup superblocks:
We will use the second backup superblock to substitute the broken one (you should use any superblock besides Primary). Check the disk utilizing the backup superblock:
# sudo fsck -b 98304 /dev/vda2 -y
fsck from util-linux 2.31.1 e2fsck 1.44.1 (24-Mar-2018) /dev/vda2 is mounted. e2fsck: Cannot proceed, aborting
Unmount the quantity:
# umount /dev/vda2
After efficiently changing the superblock, you’re going to get a message like this:
fsck from util-linux 2.31.1 e2fsck 1.44.1 (24-Mar-2018) /dev/vda2 was not cleanly unmounted, test pressured. Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes Pass 2: Checking listing construction Pass three: Checking listing connectivity Pass Four: Checking reference counts Pass 5: Checking group abstract data Free blocks depend mistaken for group #231 (32254, counted=32253). Fix? sure Free blocks depend mistaken for group #352 (32254, counted=32248). Fix? sure Free blocks depend mistaken for group #358 (32254, counted=27774). Fix? sure .......... /dev/vda2: ***** FILE SYSTEM WAS MODIFIED ***** /dev/vda2: 85986/905464576 information (Zero.2% non-contiguous), 3904682/905464576 blocks
Then unmount the boot media and restart your pc. Everything ought to work correctly.
Fsck Boot Error: Unexpected Inconsistency
The second variant of the initramfs (BusyBox) subject consists of the next message in the terminal window:
/dev/sda1: UNEXPECTED INCONSISTENCY; RUN fsck MANUALLY The root filesystem on /dev/sda1 requires a guide fsck.
If you don’t see it, attempt to enter
(initramfs) exit in the terminal window. The error might seem after you do it…
The message will present a quantity that that requires working a guide disk test. Run the next command in the initramfs immediate:
# fsck /dev/sda1 -y
After the disk test is over, restart your pc and ensure that Linux boots accurately.
Alert! /dev/quantity Does Not Exist
You can see the next error when booting the Linux host:
ALERT! /dev/sda1 doesn't exist. Dropping to a shell.
You might have simply put in your Linux or your host has some fstab issues. The most frequently the issue happens when a system is put in from a USB drive. The system might present an error of any quantity. Like in the primary case, we’ve to boot from the rescue/boor Linux media and do some actions. Check the disk UUID utilizing this command:
# sudo blkid
The system will return one thing like this:
/dev/sda2: UUID="36cce3d5-cbdb-46f4-adbf-3f9aaa01d729" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="fea4dab1-4e12-4327-85c6-76ade18f64e1"
Here we see that the system should boot from sda2, however truly it tries to boot from sda1.
Mount the quantity to any listing, for instance:
# sudo mount /dev/sda2 /mnt
When you see /dev/sda2 in the /mnt listing, discover the file /and so on/fstab there and modify the road containing /dev/sda1 as follows:
UUID=36cce3d5-cbdb-46f4-adbf-3f9aaa01d729 / ext4 errors=remount-rw Zero 1
Save the file. Unmount the quantity from /mnt and reboot. If the issue was associated to the mistaken quantity identify, the server would boot.
Also, you possibly can resolve this drawback by booting in the emergency mode. Remount the foundation listing as learn/write:
# sudo mount -o remount,rw /
Then change fstab and restart the server.
On some motherboards, SATA ports might get random numbers. It might also trigger the error described in the earlier part. To repair it, it’s essential to edit the grub bootloader.
Boot in the emergency mode or from a Live CD and edit the /boot/grub/grub.cfg file.
In the road that determines the boot quantity, for instance:
Linux /boot/vmlinuz-Four.15.Zero-70-generic root=/dev/sda1 rw quiet elevator=noop fsck.restore=sure
Replace the trail to the disk by its UUID:
Linux /boot/vmlinuz-Four.15.Zero-70-generic root=UUID=36cce3d5-cbdb-46f4-adbf-3f9aaa01d729 ro quiet elevator=noop fsck.restore=sure